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Historical dictionary of the International Monetary Fund / Norman . Agreement of the IMF and the World Bank were put in final form.
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Free database of government-funded Chinese social sciences journals. Nature Climate Change. WTO iLibrary. Ask DAG! Copyright Reminder All commercial resources should be used solely for official purposes. Disclaimer This site contains links and references to third-party databases, web sites, books and articles. Throughout history, peacebuilders have made peace a reality amid devastating violence. Peacebuilders in Rwanda worked together to overcome a genocide and bring together perpetrators and survivors of violence to learn how to live side by side in their communities.

Peacebuilders in Northern Ireland brought peace to a country that had suffered violence for generations. Peacebuilders in Yemen, Syria, DRC all are working hard to resolve conflict without violence and find a way to build long-term peace. Skip to main content. Let's get peacebuilding in the dictionary Warmonger, despot, brutality, warfare - all of these words are in the dictionary, and for good reason. Every day peacebuilders put themselves in challenging situations to bring about peace. The challenge is to enable them to do so. This will often imply the creation of preconditions for learning through awareness raising and empowerment.

The public library has long been a force promoting literacy in many countries. This committee's charge includes ensuring equitable access to information and advocating for adult new and non-readers. They might have difficulty getting and maintaining a job, providing for their families, or even reading a story to their children. For adults, the library might be the only source of a literacy program. Parents, caregivers, and educators can even start a book club.

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This community literacy program was initiated in by the Orange County Public Library in California. The organization builds on people's experience as well as education rather than trying to make up for what has not been learned. The program seeks to equip students with skills to continue learning in the future. The person becomes an example to children and grandchildren and can better serve the community.

Located in Boulder, Colorado , the program recognized the difficulty that students had in obtaining child care while attending tutoring sessions, and joined with the University of Colorado to provide reading buddies to the children of students. Reading Buddies matches children of adult literacy students with college students who meet with them once a week throughout the semester for an hour and a half. The college students receive course credit to try to enhance the quality and reliability of their time.

The goal is to help the child gain interest in books and feel comfortable reading aloud. Time is also spent on word games, writing letters, or searching for books in the library. Throughout the semester the pair work on writing and illustrating a book together. The college student's grade is partly dependent on the completion of the book. Although Reading Buddies began primarily as an answer to the lack of child care for literacy students, it has evolved into another aspect of the program. Approximately , adults in Hillsborough County are illiterate or read below the fourth-grade level; According to Census statistics, 15 percent of Hillsborough County residents age 16 and older lacked basic prose literacy skills.

Through one-on-one tutoring, the organization works to help adult students reach at least the fifth-grade level in reading. The organization also provides volunteer-run conversation groups for English practice. Traditionally, literacy is the ability to use written language actively and passively; one definition of literacy is the ability to "read, write, spell, listen, and speak".

Some have argued that the definition of literacy should be expanded. For example, in the United States , the National Council of Teachers of English and the International Reading Association have added "visually representing" [ clarification needed ] to the traditional list of competencies.

Similarly, in Scotland , literacy has been defined as: "The ability to read, write and use numeracy, to handle information, to express ideas and opinions, to make decisions and solve problems, as family members, workers, citizens and lifelong learners". A basic literacy standard in many places is the ability to read the newspaper. Increasingly, communication in commerce and in general requires the ability to use computers and other digital technologies.

Since the s, when the Internet came into wide use in the United States, some have asserted that the definition of literacy should include the ability to use tools such as web browsers , word processing programs, and text messages. Similar expanded skill sets have been called computer literacy , information literacy , and technological literacy.

An inability to "read" body language is one of the features of autism. Evolving definitions of literacy often include all the symbol systems relevant to a particular community. Other genres under study by academia include critical literacy , media literacy , ecological literacy and health literacy [93] With the increasing emphasis on evidence-based decision making, and the use of statistical graphics and information, statistical literacy is becoming a very important aspect of literacy in general. The International Statistical Literacy Project [94] is dedicated to the promotion of statistical literacy among all members of society.

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Given that a large part of the benefits of literacy can be obtained by having access to a literate person in the household, some recent literature in economics, starting with the work of Kaushik Basu and James Foster, distinguishes between a "proximate illiterate" and an "isolated illiterate".

The former refers to an illiterate person who lives in a household with literates and the latter to an illiterate who lives in a household of all illiterates. What is of concern is that many people in poor nations are not proximate illiterates but rather isolated illiterates. Teaching English literacy in the United States is dominated by a focus on a set of discrete decoding skills. From this perspective, literacy—or, rather, reading—comprises a number of subskills that can be taught to students.

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These skill sets include phonological awareness , phonics decoding , fluency , comprehension , and vocabulary. Mastering each of these subskills is necessary for students to become proficient readers. From this same perspective, readers of alphabetic languages must understand the alphabetic principle to master basic reading skills. For this purpose a writing system is "alphabetic" if it uses symbols to represent individual language sounds , [96] though the degree of correspondence between letters and sounds varies between alphabetic languages.

Syllabic writing systems such as Japanese kana use a symbol to represent a single syllable, and logographic writing systems such as Chinese use a symbol to represent a morpheme. There are any number of approaches to teaching literacy; [98] each is shaped by its informing assumptions about what literacy is and how it is best learned by students. Phonics instruction, for example, focuses on reading at the level of the word.

It teaches readers to observe and interpret the letters or groups of letters that make up words.

A common method of teaching phonics is synthetic phonics , in which a novice reader pronounces each individual sound and "blends" them to pronounce the whole word. Another approach is embedded phonics instruction, used more often in whole language reading instruction, in which novice readers learn about the individual letters in words on a just-in-time, just-in-place basis that is tailored to meet each student's reading and writing learning needs.

Embedded instruction combines letter-sound knowledge with the use of meaningful context to read new and difficult words. In a proposal, it has been claimed that reading can be acquired naturally if print is constantly available at an early age in the same manner as spoken language. This proposal challenges the commonly held belief that written language requires formal instruction and schooling.

Its success would change current views of literacy and schooling. Using developments in behavioral science and technology, an interactive system Technology Assisted Reading Acquisition, TARA would enable young pre-literate children to accurately perceive and learn properties of written language by simple exposure to the written form. In Australia a number of State governments have introduced Reading Challenges to improve literacy. The Premier's Reading Challenge in South Australia, launched by Premier Mike Rann has one of the highest participation rates in the world for reading challenges. Programs have been implemented in regions that have an ongoing conflict or in a post-conflict stage.

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The Norwegian Refugee Council Pack program has been used in 13 post-conflict countries since The program organizers believe that daily routines and other wise predictable activities help the transition from war to peace. Learners can select one area in vocational training for a year-long period. They complete required courses in agriculture, life skills, literacy and numeracy. Results have shown that active participation and management of the members of the program are important to the success of the program. These programs share the use of integrated basic education, e. Although there is considerable awareness that language deficiencies lacking proficiency are disadvantageous to immigrants settling in a new country, there appears to be a lack of pedagogical approaches that address the instruction of literacy to migrant English language learners ELLs.

Harvard scholar Catherine Snow called for a gap to be addresses: "The TESOL field needs a concerted research effort to inform literacy instruction for such children Recent developments to address the gap in teaching literacy to second or foreign language learners has been ongoing and promising results have been shown by Pearson and Pellerine [] which integrates Teaching for Understanding, a curricular framework from the Harvard Graduate School of Education. A series of pilot projects had been carried out in the Middle East and Africa see Patil, In one case migrant women had been provided with cameras and a walking tour of their local village was provided to the instructor as the women photographed their tour focusing on places and activities that would later be used for writings about their daily life.

In essence a narrative of life. Other primers for writing activities include: painting, sketching, and other craft projects e. A series of pilot studies were carried out to investigate alternatives to instructing literacy to migrant ELLs, [] starting from simple trials aiming to test the teaching of photography to participants with no prior photography background, to isolating painting and sketching activities that could later be integrated into a larger pedagogical initiative.

In efforts to develop alternative approaches for literacy instruction utilising visual arts, work was carried out with Afghan labourers, Bangladeshi tailors, Emirati media students, internal Ethiopian migrants both labourers and university students , and a street child.

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It should be pointed out that in such challenging contexts sometimes the teaching of literacy may have unforeseen barriers. The EL Gazette reported that in the trials carried out in Ethiopia, for example, it was found that all ten of the participants had problems with vision. In a visual arts approach to literacy instruction a benefit can be the inclusion of both a traditional literacy approach reading and writing while at the same time addressing 21st Century digital literacy instruction through the inclusion of digital cameras and posting images onto the web.